Εμφάνιση αναρτήσεων με ετικέτα English Articles. Εμφάνιση όλων των αναρτήσεων
Εμφάνιση αναρτήσεων με ετικέτα English Articles. Εμφάνιση όλων των αναρτήσεων

The Archimedes Palimpsest, is a Byzantine prayer book

Pages from the Archimedes Palimpsest.

   LOST for centuries. FOUND by the Walters Art Museum. Discover how an international team of experts resurrected the hidden manuscript of the ancient world's greatest thinker, Archimedes of Syracuse.
   In Jerusalem in 1229 AD the greatest works of the Greek mathematician Archimedes were erased and overwritten with a prayer book by a priest called Johannes Myronas. 
   In the year 2000 a project was begun by a team of experts at the Walters Art Museum to read these erased texts. 
   By the time they had finished, the team that worked on the book had recovered Archimedes' secrets, rewritten the history of mathematics and discovered entirely new texts from the ancient world. 

   This exhibition will tell that famous story. It will recount the history of the book, detail the patient conservation, explain the cutting-edge imaging and highlight the discoveries of the dogged and determined scholars who finally read what had been obliterated.

   Known as The Archimedes Palimpsest, the manuscript is a Byzantine prayer book from the 13th century which was assembled using pages from several earlier manuscripts – one of which contained several treatises by the Greek mathematician Archimedes that were copied in 10th-century Constantinople. 

Archimedes palimpsest, 1229,
Walters Art Museum in Baltimore.
   These were first discovered in 1906 by the Danish Archimedes scholar Johan Ludwig Heiberg, but as the text had been scraped away to make room for the prayer book he was only able to partially read them, and the book then went missing until it was auctioned – in a much more damaged state – at Christie's in New York in 1998. 

   Bought by an anonymous American collector for $2m (£1.25m), it was deposited at Baltimore's Walters Art Museum, where scientists, conservators, classicists and historians have been working on uncovering the secrets of oldest surviving copy of Archimedes' works.

   Since that date (1998) the manuscript has been the subject of conservation, imaging and scholarship, in order to better read the texts. The Archimedes Palimpsest project, as it is called, has shed new light on Archimedes and revealed new texts from the ancient world. It has also generated a great deal of public curiosity, as well as the interest of scholars throughout the world.

   Left, an image of folio XXX. Right, IR image which succeeded in separating the Archimedes ink (carbon black ink) from the parchment underneath it, and from the prayer book ink (ferro-gallic ink) on top of it. 
   Using multispectral imaging and an x-ray technique which picked up the iron in the ink that had been scraped away, they discovered that Archimedes, working in the third century BC, considered the concept of actual infinity, something thought to have only been developed in the 19th century, and anticipated calculus. 
   As well as seven treatises by the ancient Greek mathematician, including the only surviving copy of his The Method of Mechanical Theorems and Stomachion, new speeches by the classical Athenian orator Hyperides and a lost commentary on Aristotle's Categories from the second or third century AD were also found beneath the text of the prayer book.

   After centuries of mistreatment, the Archimedes palimpsest is in bad shape. During its thousand-year life, it has been scraped, singed by fire, dribbled with wax, smeared with glue, and ravaged by a deep purple fungus, which in places has eaten through its pages. 

   Without the use of computer technology, the Archimedes palimpsest would be largely illegible. But modern imaging technologies, similar to those that helped experts read portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1996, allow for astonishingly precise views of faded text. 
Image source: Nova.

   The exhibition Lost and Found: The Secrets of Archimedes will conclude with two galleries that ask "What will we discover next?" 
   In six interactive learning stations, conservation staff will present artworks from the Walters' collection to illustrate the very real questions that start the process of learning and discovery through research. For example, you will be invited to consider why a Kentucky Long rifle is associated with a pastoral 19th-century drawing by Rosa Bonheur, to explore what Ethiopian painting and manuscript illustration have to do with colorful minerals on display, and to ponder how silver preservation could be revolutionized by recent advances in nanotechnology.

   This exhibition has been generously supported by an anonymous donor and by leadership gifts from the Selz Foundation and the Stockman Family Foundation.
   The Archimedes Palimpsest is a manuscript of extraordinary importance to the history of science. This thirteenth century prayer book contains erased texts that were written several centuries earlier. These erased texts include two treatises by Archimedes that can be found nowhere else, The Method and Stomachion.

   On 29th October 2008, we celebrated the ten year anniversary of the project. What was erased text, in terrible condition, impossible to access, and yet foundational to the history and science of the West, is now legible, and instantly available.

  Archimedes, The Greek mathematician was born in the Greek colony of Syracuse on the island of Sicily in 287 BC. He was the son of an astronomer and mathematician named Phidias.


The practice of manipulating and controlling public opinion

Our reality is carefully constructed by powerful corporate, political and special interest sources in order to covertly sway public opinion. Blatant lies are often televised regarding terrorism, food, war, health, etc. They are fashioned to sway public opinion and condition viewers to accept what have become destructive societal norms.
The practice of manipulating and controlling public opinion with distorted media messages has become so common that there is a whole industry formed around this. The entire role of this brainwashing industry is to figure out how to spin information to journalists, similar to the lobbying of government. 
It is never really clear just how much truth the journalists receive because the news industry has become complacent. 
The messages that it presents are shaped by corporate powers who often spend millions on advertising with the six conglomerates that own 90% of the media: General Electric (GE), News-Corp, Disney, Viacom, Time Warner, and CBS. Yet, these corporations function under many different brands, such as Fox, ABC, CNN, Comcast, Wall Street Journal, etc, giving people the perception of choice.
“As Tavistock’s researchers showed, it was important that the victims of mass brainwashing not be aware that their environment was being controlled; there should thus be a vast number of sources for information, whose messages could be varied slightly, so as to mask the sense of external control.” ~ Specialist of mass brainwashing, L. Wolfe

New Brainwashing Tactics Called ‘Astroturf’
With alternative media on the rise, the propaganda machinecontinues to expand. Below is a video of Sharyl Attkisson, investigative reporter with CBS, during which she explains how “astroturf,” or fake grassroots movements, are used to spin information not only to influence journalists but to sway public opinion.
“Astroturf is a perversion of grassroots. Astroturf is when political, corporate or other special interests disguise themselves and publish blogs, start facebook and twitter accounts, publish ads, letters to the editor, or simply post comments online, to try to fool you into thinking an independent or grassroots movement is speaking.” ~ Sharyl Attkisson, Investigative Reporter
How do you separate fact from fiction? Sharyl Attkisson finishes her talk with some insights on how to identify signs of propaganda and astroturf.
Here is a summary of astroturf tactics. Once you’re aware of them, you will notice just how popular they have truly become:
  • Creating of Wikipedia pages, monitored by corporations.
  • Creating a social media presence, including Facebook and Twitter accounts, run by paid professionals.
  • Secretly funding non-profit organizations to create third-party support and web presence.
  • Search engine optimizing web pages such as blogs and third-party sites that support a specific agenda.
  • Financing industry research that is deceitfully presented as independent opinion.
  • Funding experts working on unrelated projects, while in reality creating paid consultants.
These methods are used to give people the impression that there is widespread support for an agenda, when, in reality, one may not exist. Astroturf tactics are also used to discredit or criticize those that disagree with certain agendas, using stereotypical names such asconspiracy theorist or quack. When in fact when someone dares to reveal the truth or questions the ‘official’ story, it should spark a deeper curiosity and encourage further scrutiny of the information.
Delivered by The Daily Sheeple  We encourage you to share and republish our reports, analyses, breaking news and videos (Click for details).
* Astroturfing is the practice of masking the sponsors of a message or organization (e.g., political, advertising, religious or public relations) to make it appear as though it originates from and is supported by grassroots participant(s).
It is a practice intended to give the statements or organizations credibility by withholding information about the source's financial connection. The term astroturfing is derived from AstroTurf, a brand of synthetic carpeting designed to resemble natural grass, as a play on the word "grassroots."

The implication behind the use of the term is that there are no "true" or "natural" grassroots, but rather "fake" or "artificial" support, although some astroturfing operatives defend the practice (see Justification below).

On the Internet, astroturfers use software to mask their identity. Sometimes one individual operates through many personas to give the impression of widespread support for their client's agenda. Some studies suggest astroturfing can alter public viewpoints and create enough doubt to inhibit action. 


Just Get Rid Of... these persons

“People inspire you, or they drain you – pick them wisely.” – Hans Hensen
Is it time to do some spring cleaning with the group of people who make up your circle of acquaintances, colleagues and friends? There are probably some toxic persons in there who are undermining your confidence, betraying your trust, and spreading negativity. There is no escaping the fact that we cannot live in total isolation, as we are social animals. We need to find empathy, compassion and positive stimuli to survive in the jungle. To avoid shutting off from everyone completely, here are 10 toxic persons you should get rid of or, at the very least, avoid as much as possible.

1. Those who soak up your time like a sponge.

These may be family members or friends who seize your time like bank robbers! Yes, you have heard it all before. They repeat the same old refrain and there is nothing for you to gain. Friendships need a give and take.
As soon as you ascertain that they do not even want help or can’t offer you affectionate support in return, it may be time to drastically reduce your exposure to these people or just get rid of them. They will waste too much of your time, if you let them.
It may be impossible to get rid of family members, though. So try a few tactics like switching off your phone at certain times of the day or simply invent urgent messages or callers. We all need alone time.
“I think it’s very healthy to spend time alone. You need to know how to be alone and not defined by another person.” – Oscar Wilde

2. Those who criticize you far too often.

Nothing wrong with a bit of honest and fair feedback. But when you find that certain people are engaging in constant criticism, it may be time to take action. When the criticism is not constructive in any way, you might even drop them a hint that they are going to lose any friends they have left.
You can also always tell them that their constant criticism is not helpful in any way and it upsets you.

3. Those who play the victim all the time.

These are the experts at the blame game. They never take ownership of their own shortcomings or mistakes. They are the victim and it is never their fault! It always seems to be the fault of their colleagues or their upbringing which never really gave them a chance.
These people just have to be avoided at all costs and avoid being pulled in, because they may start to involve you in their blame game.

4. Those who have a negative mindset.

These people spread negativity like a contagious disease. Try to get vaccinated by avoiding them at all costs. These people get into a negative downward spiral and it is sometimes difficult not to get dragged down there. These are the people who are always anxious, worried, pessimistic, depressed and complain a lot.
You need to get rid of them because if you want to live longer, a positive outlook will add years to your life. One Yale study has found that having a positive attitude to aging can help you live seven years longer.

5. Those who lose their temper and zap your energy.

These are the ones who really drain your energy. Why do you have to absorb their silly and sometimes childish outbursts? We all have difficult moments. Keeping self-control will test us to our limits and we usually have ways of controlling it. Letting off steam may help these people but why should you have to absorb the fall out?
These short-fused people are underdeveloped psychologically and their emotional intelligence is hovering around zero. There is no need for them to be part of your inner circle.
I remember having to witness my doctor insulting, berating and screaming at his son on the phone while I waited to have a check up. It was awful having to listen to all that. Needless to say, I changed my doctor as soon as I could!

6. Those who show no compassion or empathy.

You do not want these in your inner circle either for the simple reason that they are not capable of lending a sympathetic ear or understanding your problems when you need them to be around. These people have personality problems and some of them display narcissist tendencies.
They do not have the ability to put themselves in other people’s shoes. This is the key to social interaction and sound, ethical behavior. That is why you do not want them around you.
“Love and compassion are necessities, not luxuries. Without them, humanity can not survive.” – Dalai Lama.

7. Those who are dishonest and lie to you.

“Lying is done with words, and also with silence.”- Adrienne Rich
Some friends will swear secrecy when you tell them something confidential. When you find this information is now common knowledge, you may well be furious and decide to end the friendship. But dishonest and untruthful people can also do harm in many other ways. They may lie to you about their debts or if they are having problems at work. They may also be insincere and lie to you about what they think of your behavior when you ask them for feedback.
These people can only damage friendship over time because trust, truthfulness and honesty are the most precious qualities in any friendship. If they do these things, they are not worthy of your friendship.

8. Those who are manipulative and will exploit you.

There are some friends who just want to use you to get an introduction to an important person you know, a job interview or even a date. They use gossip as a weapon and there is always a hidden agenda. They are angling for that job so they will make sure you do not apply.
They will tell you scary stories about the job, the boss and the miserable salary. They are just reducing the number of contenders to their advantage.
Manipulative friends know how to extract information from you or get you to reveal certain weaknesses which they will then use against you. They will exploit your generosity and your social conscience and will rarely give anything in return. You can soon spot it if you are the one who is always the giver or the one who pays for everything! These people have to be avoided because they are using you.

9. Those who are deliberately hurtful.

These people have a range of tactics and remarks which can be very hurtful. It might be your parents criticizing how you are bringing up your children when your own upbringing was nothing to write home about. It could be an off the cuff remark, which is sly or hurtful, and leaves you feeling wounded.
Sometimes, people make nasty remarks which call into question your own honesty, diligence or ability. Other occasions are when friends fail to deliver on their promises such as not doing you the favour you requested or just forgetting to call you.
These are hurtful tactics that you should not overlook and have to put up with. These friends and family members seem to be more intent on laying mines than displaying warmth, affection and support. That is why you need to get rid of them.

10. Those who are stressed out.

Did you know that humans are programmed to think negatively and they are always worried about safety, health and survival? Anthropologically, this makes sense, since as cavemen, things were not that great. It is amazing how this built-in stress is still with us today. That is why, when stressed out people appear in our cubicles or phone us, we have to be ready to withstand them.
And there is no shortage of these people, as between 75% to 90% of all visits to the doctor are stress related! Research studies show that any exposure to stress in the long term will affect our brains and performance.
We have enough stress of our own to deal with, without having to deal with stressed out people hovering over us. We need to distance ourselves from them to survive.
How have you have managed to get rid of toxic persons in your life? Let us know in the comments!


Do you want to free your mind ? Give the answers

These questions have no right or wrong answers.
Because sometimes asking the right questions is the answer.
  1. How old would you be if you didn’t know how old you are?
  2. Which is worse, failing or never trying?
  3. If life is so short, why do we do so many things we don’t like and like so many things we don’t do?
  4. When it’s all said and done, will you have said more than you’ve done?
  5. What is the one thing you’d most like to change about the world?
  6. If happiness was the national currency, what kind of work would make you rich?
  7. Are you doing what you believe in, or are you settling for what you are doing?
  8. If the average human life span was 40 years, how would you live your life differently?
  9. To what degree have you actually controlled the course your life has taken?
  10. Are you more worried about doing things right, or doing the right things?
  11. You’re having lunch with three people you respect and admire.  They all start criticizing a close friend of yours, not knowing she is your friend.  The criticism is distasteful and unjustified.  What do you do?
  12. If you could offer a newborn child only one piece of advice, what would it be?
  13. Would you break the law to save a loved one?
  14. Have you ever seen insanity where you later saw creativity?
  15. What’s something you know you do differently than most people?
  16. How come the things that make you happy don’t make everyone happy?
  17. What one thing have you not done that you really want to do? What’s holding you back?
  18. Are you holding onto something you need to let go of?
  19. If you had to move to a state or country besides the one you currently live in, where would you move and why?
  20. Do you push the elevator button more than once?  Do you really believe it makes the elevator faster?
  21. Would you rather be a worried genius or a joyful simpleton?
  22. Why are you, you?
  23. Have you been the kind of friend you want as a friend?
  24. Which is worse, when a good friend moves away, or losing touch with a good friend who lives right near you?
  25. What are you most grateful for?
  26. Would you rather lose all of your old memories, or never be able to make new ones?
  27. Is is possible to know the truth without challenging it first?
  28. Has your greatest fear ever come true?
  29. Do you remember that time 5 years ago when you were extremely upset?  Does it really matter now?
  30. What is your happiest childhood memory?  What makes it so special?
  31. At what time in your recent past have you felt most passionate and alive?
  32. If not now, then when?
  33. If you haven’t achieved it yet, what do you have to lose?
  34. Have you ever been with someone, said nothing, and walked away feeling like you just had the best conversation ever?
  35. Why do religions that support love cause so many wars?
  36. Is it possible to know, without a doubt, what is good and what is evil?
  37. If you just won a million dollars, would you quit your job?
  38. Would you rather have less work to do, or more work you actually enjoy doing?
  39. Do you feel like you’ve lived this day a hundred times before?
  40. When was the last time you marched into the dark with only the soft glow of an idea you strongly believed in?
  41. If you knew that everyone you know was going to die tomorrow, who would you visit today?
  42. Would you be willing to reduce your life expectancy by 10 years to become extremely attractive or famous?
  43. What is the difference between being alive and truly living?
  44. When is it time to stop calculating risk and rewards, and just go ahead and do what you know is right?
  45. If we learn from our mistakes, why are we always so afraid to make a mistake?
  46. What would you do differently if you knew nobody would judge you?
  47. When was the last time you noticed the sound of your own breathing?
  48. What do you love?  Have any of your recent actions openly expressed this love?
  49. In 5 years from now, will you remember what you did yesterday?  What about the day before that?  Or the day before that?
  50. Decisions are being made right now.  The question is:  Are you making them for yourself, or are you letting others make them for you?


Is the Iranian threat the Greavest Danger to World Peace ?

Noam Chomsky
Cross-posted with TomDispatch.com
Throughout the world there is great relief and optimism about the nuclear deal reached in Vienna between Iran and the P5+1 nations, the five veto-holding members of the U.N. Security Council and Germany. Most of the world apparently shares the assessment of the U.S. Arms Control Association that “the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action establishes a strong and effective formula for blocking all of the pathways by which Iran could acquire material for nuclear weapons for more than a generation and a verification system to promptly detect and deter possible efforts by Iran to covertly pursue nuclear weapons that will last indefinitely.”

There are, however, striking exceptions to the general enthusiasm: the United States and its closest regional allies, Israel and Saudi Arabia. One consequence of this is that U.S. corporations, much to their chagrin, are prevented from flocking to Tehran along with their European counterparts. Prominent sectors of U.S. power and opinion share the stand of the two regional allies and so are in a state of virtual hysteria over “the Iranian threat.” Sober commentary in the United States, pretty much across the spectrum, declares... 

Athens has a chance of clawing back some of the hundreds of millions of dollars it paid Goldman

Exclusive: A leading adviser to debt-riven countries has offered to help Athens recover some of the vast profits made by the investment bank

Goldman Sachs faces the prospect of potential legal action from Greece over the complex financial deals in 2001 that many blame for its subsequent debt crisis.
A leading adviser to debt-riven countries has offered to help Athens recover some of the vast profits made by the investment bank.

Jeb Bush Confronted By College Student: 'Your Brother Created ISIS'.

A college student told likely GOP presidential candidate Jeb Bush on Wednesday that his brother, former President George W. Bush, was to blame for the rise of the Islamic State.

The heated confrontation took place at a town hall meeting in Reno, Nevada, according to The New York Times

Ivy Ziedrich, 19, a student at the University of Nevada, approached the former Florida governor to question him about comments he had made during the event. 

When times are tough, you must be tougher and remember

“That which does not kill us makes us stronger.”
–Friedrich Nietzsche

The wisest, most loving, and well rounded people you have ever met are likely those who have known misery, known defeat, known the heartbreak of losing something or someone they loved, and have found their way out of the depths of their own despair. 
These people have experienced many ups and downs, and have gained an appreciation, a sensitivity, and an understanding of life that fills them with compassion, understanding and a deep loving wisdom. People like this aren’t born; they develop slowly over the course of time.

Grass helped Germans to revive culture in the aftermath of World War II

BERLIN (AP) — Guenter Grass, the Nobel-winning German writer who gave voice to the generation that came of age during the horrors of the Nazi era but later ran into controversy over his own World War II past and stance toward Israel, has died. He was 87.

Matthias Wegener, spokesman for the Steidl publishing house, confirmed that Grass died Monday morning in a Luebeck hospital.

Scientists... About Mystery Of Earth's Tectonic Plates

Researchers at the Victoria University of Wellington near the southern part
of New Zealand's North Island. | Victoria University of Wellingto

         Scientists have long known that the Earth's crust consists of at least 15 tectonic plates--continent-sized slabs of rock on the surface of the Earth that shift about to create mountains, volcanoes, and earthquake zones. But the exact mechanism by which the plates move has remained a mystery.
Until now.
         A new study suggests that the plates glide about on a six-mile-thick hidden channel of "soft" rock located between the base of the plates and the upper portion of the Earth's mantle (the layer of molten rock above the planet's core), Live Science reported.
“The idea that Earth’s surface consists of a mosaic of moving plates is a well-established scientific paradigm, but it had never been clear about what actually moves the plates around," study co-author Dr. Tim Stern, a professor of geography, environment and earth sciences at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand, said in a written statement. “To work this out requires an understanding of what happens at the bottom of a tectonic plate."

(Story continues below image.)

tectonic plates
This map shows 15 of the largest plates.

         To glimpse the underbelly of a tectonic plate, the researchers used dynamite explosions to generate seismic waves across the southern part of New Zealand's North Island, which sits above the so-called Pacific Plate. The researchers mapped the waves as they traveled through the plate and then used the data to create what Stern called "the most detailed image yet of an oceanic tectonic plate."
The data showed that the seismic waves slowed abruptly at the base of the plate--which suggests that they must have hit a hidden layer of jelly-like rock, Cosmos magazine reported.
The researchers hypothesize that the soft rock creates a slippery base upon whichplates drift when they are pushed or pulled--though exactly what is doing the pushing or pulling is still up for debate.
According to Cosmos magazine, some scientists think that extruding magma or slowly creeping convection currents may push the plates apart. Others think that as a thick, heavy plate dives beneath a thinner plate, it pulls on the plate behind it--and the jelly-like rock found at the base of a tectonic plate may lend support to the pulling theory.
“Understanding this boundary between the base of cold, rigid tectonic plates and the underlying hot, convecting mantle underneath is central to our knowledge of plate tectonics and the very formation and evolution of our planet," Stern said in the statement.
The study was published online Feb. 5, 2015 in the journal Nature.

What else is happening beneath Earth's surface? Take a subterranean tour in the "Talk Nerdy To Me" video below.


Power is never really won, You earn it and win it by caring

   When citizens interested create culture. 

   The ancient theater Aharnon definitely showed patience until affectionately by the Greek light and perseverance to "become" a desire to have a place among similar findings. Eventually the ancient theatre of Acharnes slowly reveals his size, his past ... 

   The ancient theatre of Acharnes was found in February 2007 accidentally in a building foundation work, which was then Salaminos street, now renamed Ancient theatre street in the urban site of municipality of Acharnes by archaeologist Maria Platonos Giota. It received global interest due to the great historical, archaeological, social and cultural importance. 
   The existence of the theatre is indicated by two important inscriptions of the second half of the 4th century B.C. 
A votive inscription reports the income from renting the theatre for private tragedy or comedy performances, the money of which was used for the religious needs of the municipality. The second inscription bearing two decrees was used as a tube cover and was found in 1987 by Mrs Maria Platonos in the excavation of a Roman bath in close proximity to the point of the site of the theatre. 
   The so far excavations have brought to light an entire kerkis (cuneus) 5 m. wide at their west section and 22 m. wide at their east section with 11 rows of limostone blocks in semi-circular arrangement that had apparently been transferred from a local stone quarry.

   Also a small part of another kerkis has been excavated to the north of the first one which probably continues intact, as Mrs Platonos believes, under the foundation of the new building. A small part of the orchestra was also revealed at a depth of 2.3 m. 
   It is obvious that the rest of the Koilon, the parodoi (passageways), the orchestra and the scene building are to be found under the building to the north and down the road. 
   It is hoped that they will be revealed as soon as the excavation starts again. This was left off in the summer of 2007 , but it will restart when the compulsory purchase of the nearby plots is complete (now under judicial determination ).

   Keeping the initial enthusiasm and expectations, which arose from the discovery of the theatre and motivated by the association 's "DIAZOMA" – Citizens movement for the Ancient Theaters around Greece- president Mr Stavros Benos, it was established a cultural institution with the legal form of a non-profit company named "EPISKINION" -Citizens Movement for the emergence of the Ancient Theatre of Acharnes-, an entity, purely voluntary and purely non-profit, non-funded and non-sponsored with a specific cultural purpose: the promotion and protection of the Ancient Theatre of Acharnes which is of unique value, presided by Mrs. Maria Micha, honoured member of DIAZOMA. 
   Under no circumstances will it substitute the state or relevant government agencies, which have the legal and institutional responsibility for the complete revelation and enhancement of this archaeological treasure. 
   Since it was founded, EPISKINION I has been working closely with DIAZOMA. In order to achieve the purpose mentioned above, EPISKINION with its members (including archaeologist Maria Platonos Giota, the mayor of Acharnes Mr Sotiris Douros, the local folk painter Christos Tsevas, presidents of local clubs, many distinguished archaeologists including the B Prehistoric and classical Antiquities and entities such as the Mountaineering club of Acharnes and the Art club of Acharnes, with a passion for the ancient theatre and love for the city of Acharnes without personal benefit by taking a variety of actions embraced by many people. 
   Through these actions it is achieved the awareness of residents for culture and the multiple benefits that will accrue to the local community by using the monument to the social and economic development (tourism, industry, cultural content service). 
   On the other hand pressure is put on competent bodies to accelerate time-consuming bureaucratic procedures, concerning the revelation of the ancient theatre. 

   Since EPISKINION was founded in 2010, in cooperation with DIAZOMA and together with the effective presence in all social media, it created an electronic coin bank account which remains first nationwide in terms of citizen participation. 
   This, among other things, is a powerful message to the institutions which are typically responsible for the expropriation, pavement construction, excavations and restoration of the theatre that the citizens of Acharnes are active and present. 
   That was the reason that although our country faces an unprecedented economic crisis, because of our presence and pressures a compensation for the first plot was issued in October 2011. 
   That was also the cause that in May 2012 it was declared the expropriation for another three properties (including buildings), but only after the completion of their compensation the excavations can be included in ESPA programs. 
   Already approaching the end of a lengthy and highly bureaucratic trial phase, means that when this is over then what follows is the judicial determination of the amount of compensation to owners. 
   The facts so far show that the disclosure -where permitted- and use of ancient theatres takes many decades. Take the Little Theatre of Epidaurus for example. The excavations began in 1971 and the expropriations were completed last year. 
   There is also the ancient theatre of Delos, which, although excavations began in 1882, it hasn't been restored yet. The goal of EPISKINION through actions and supervision is to reveal the ancient theatre with no delays in the processes of revelation contrary to the adverse economic condition of our country. 

EPISKINION intends to keep the theatre of Acharnes in the spotlight through actions. It conducts educational tours in other ancient theatres in Greece, informing about the theatre of Acharnes and at the same time the members of EPISKINION are getting informed about the stage of restoration and enhancement of other ancient theatres. 
   It has established an annual essay contest for high school students and also an annual bike ride which has a starting point to the Acharnean Gates at Kotzia square in the centre of Athens and through the vaulted Tomb and the tomb of Sophocles ends at the ancient theatre of Achanres. 
   There is also the adoption of the theatre by high schools and an educational program called "young archaeologist of Acharnes", which has been applied by two elementary schools. Theatrical performances are organized with the participation of distinguished professional actors and also the donation of books to the Library of the Department of Archaeology and Historical Research of Acharnes. 
   Finally Mrs. Aikaterini Kafi has voluntarily accepted to compose a musical play for the ancient theatre and the organizing of concerts with the voluntary participation of major Greek artists. 
   In addition, EPISKINION through actions and expenditures of its own posted an information sign at the site of the theatre and through pressures Salaminos street was renamed Ancient Theatre Street. 
   In the meantime there are actions to put information signs for the theatre at key locations. An immediate plan is to release a historical narrative for the ancient theatre of Acharnes. 

   The aim of EPISKINION remains, the soonest possible revelation of the theatre, to raise public awareness about the tremendous value of this monument, the production of a model culture that doesn't derive from introversion or elitism but sustained dialogue, which will lead to the effective management of the monument - that is - the archaeological evidence, the linking with the other archaeological monuments in Acharnes and the integration in the local community with sustainability rules.

 A non profit entity is a citizens movement for the promotion of the ancient theatre of Acharnes, which is a monument of unique cultural value .It was found in February 2007 in the urban site of municipality of Acharnes. 
Episkinion through various cultural activities so as to arouse public interest aims at the full revelation enhancement and promotion of this archaeological treasure


Maria Platonos  ''The antiquities of the Municipality of ancient Aharnon and disclosure of theater, Museum of Cycladic Art, Archaeological contributions''  Part I, page.137